CYBERTERRORISM and CYBERWARFARE

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Cyberterror.

CYBERTERRORISM is the use of modern communication technology in the commission of terrorist activities. Although not strictly limited to the Internet (since there are military/corporate/private computer networks that can be attacked), there is still a strong bias toward using the Internet to exercise or exemplify (for others) the concept of cyberterrorism. Cyberterrorism does not have a single definition: In some instances, it refers to use of the Internet to disrupt information systems by formal, recognized terrorist organizations. In other instances, cyber-terrorism refers to Internet use by recognized governments that may be seen as supporting or encouraging terrorist activities. When states launch attacks using the Internet, it is usually referred to as cyber-warfare. Sometimes cyberterrorism refers strictly to activities carried out by organizations, other times to activities carried out by individuals pursuing a common goal but without a formal organization. Cyberterrorism may refer to activities executed across international borders or within a single country. Cyberterrorists go beyond the law and the general norms of the countries they attack to accomplish a political agenda agreed on by only a small minority within the country, and with which the majority of the country usually disagrees. Cyber-terrorism is undertaken through such avenues as worms, viruses, and back-doors and has several important purposes for which it is undertaken, including extortion, the creation of economic disruption, and identity theft. The actual use of the Internet in cyberterrorism ranges from preparative acts to propaganda to carrying out an act of terrorism. Preparative acts of cyberterrorism include buying airline tickets, researching building plans, and acquiring weapons. Propaganda acts of cyberterrorism are generally limited to exhorting potential recruits into joining terrorist organizations and exhorting sympathizers to contribute money and resources. Carrying out acts of cyberterrorism on the Internet is generally limited to deluging opponents with threats or attacking computers and networks.

Cyberterrorism and cyberwarfare

Most cyberterrorism acts are international in nature.
Many groups recruit from and are active in a number of countries, and try to change the international activities of a specific country. Individuals within one country, or a small number of countries, use cyberterrorism to try to exact vengeance against another country for a perceived affront against either their homeland or their own social group. Rebels fighting within one country, but who actually live and work outside of the country, use the Internet to continue fighting against the government of the country through correspondence and recruitment and propaganda activities. This last situation usually occurs when a demographically identifiable group within a country fights for independence from that country or for equal or special rights. This does not negate the existence of cyberterrorist activities by groups within a single country.

As a result of the frequently international nature of cyberterrorism, many countries have started working together to combat it. Governments trying to stop cyberterrorism have used a combination of tools. Whenever possible, existing laws have been applied in the combat to stop cyberterrorism. For example, purchasing illegal weapons on the Internet equates to purchasing illegal weapons in person or through other means. There are also specific treaties aimed at halting cyberterrorism internationally. The creator of malware (malignant software) is no longer punished solely according to the laws of the country of residence. Now, when malware goes international, the country that either suffered the most damage or has the harshest punishment, depending on the specifics of the treaty being applied, issues the punishment.
Law enforcement agencies and sometimes militaries, from several countries, are now working much more closely, when pursuing cyberterrorists.

Examples of cyberterrorism come from around the world. In the United States, abortion opponents use e-mail to harass doctors providing abortions. Al-Qaida operatives in Europe, the Middle East, and the United States have used the Internet to research bombing targets, purchase supplies, and recruit members. A female al-Qaida operative in Belgium used the Internet to exhort people to join and participate in bombings. Palestinians, Israelis, Chinese, Taiwanese, Russians and Americans are known to have used the Internet to hack into and attack business and government Internet sites.
Hacking-and-cyberterrorism



Even though the respective governments often get the blame when this happens, complete total evidence or proof of this type of government-related cyberterrorism or cyberwarfare, is not exactly available to the public right now, but it comes very close to be able, to really be proven in a court process. The biggest problem is that the perpetrators and offenders are in a nation, other than that exposed to the cyberattacks, and the fact that they are sometimes ordered to commit these crimes by their superiors.
-And therefore they are protected by their respective governments at all instances, and of course, also referring to that perpetrating country's own aces, like the 'morality law-bending' decision-makers protecting their decisions and friends in the political group.
Although their actions probably may also be illegal even in their own country!

If you would like to study these evidences against the USA Government- go to our menu and choose 'top secret'.
-To round things up a little bit, for you!


-When internet freaks or wiz-kid youngsters practice minor forms of cyber-terrorism, alone or together, and try becoming so-called 'hackers', it' s publicly often referred to within the term of hactivism, or the longer: computer hacking as activism.








The Different Techniques

(Used to commit cyber related crimes, cyber attacks and cyber realted threats):

[The Type and description follows below]

Phreaking
The name comes from “freak” but with the f replaced by ph as in phone. The verb “phreaking” describes hacking phone systems.
The history of phreaking is very important for the general development of hacking.

Spamming
Sending unsolicited commercial e-mail advertising for products, services, and Web sites. Spam can also be used as a delivery mechanism for malware and other cyber threats.

Phishing
A high-tech scam that frequently uses spam or pop-up messages to deceive people into disclosing their credit card numbers, bank account information, Social Security numbers, passwords, or other sensitive information. Internet scammers use e-mail baits, among other things, to “phish” for passwords and financial data from the big sea of Internet users.

Spoofing
Creating a fraudulent Web site to mimic an actual, well-known Web site run by another group, organisation or criminal party.


E-mail spoofing
Occurs when the sender address and other parts of an e-mail header are altered to appear as though the e-mail originated from a different source. Spoofing hides the origin of an e-mail message.

Pharming
A method used by phishers to deceive users into believing that they are communicating with a legitimate Web site. Pharming uses a variety of technical methods to redirect a user to a fraudulent or spoofed Web site when the user types in a legitimate Web address. For example, one pharming technique is to redirect users —without their knowledge—to a different Web site from the one they intended to access. Also, software vulnerabilities may be exploited or malware employed to redirect the user to a fraudulent Web site when the user types in a legitimate address.

Denial-of-service attack
An attack in which one user takes up so much of a shared resource that none of the resource is left for other users. Denial-of-service attacks compromise the availability of the website or other resource.

Distributed denial-of-service
A variant of the denial-of-service attack that uses a coordinated attack from a distributed system of computers rather than from a single source. It often makes use of worms to spread to multiple computers that then can then attack the target together.

Viruses
A computer program that “infects” other computer files, usually executable programs, by inserting a copy of itself into the original file on the computer. These copies are usually executed when the infected file is loaded into the computers memory, allowing the virus to infect other computer files. A virus requires human involvement or action (who/which mostly is unwitting/unknowing/unintentional) to multiply or propagate itself.

Trojan horse
A computer program that conceals harmful code. It usually masquerades as a useful program that a user would wish to execute. Governments are known (by us) to spread this via download sites and torrents.

Worm
An independent computer program that reproduces by copying itself from one system to another across a network. Unlike computer viruses, worms do not require human involvement to propagate.

Malware
Malicious software designed to carry out annoying or harmful actions. Malware often masquerades as useful programs or is embedded into useful programs so that users are induced into activating them. Malware can include viruses, worms, and spyware.

Spyware
Malware installed without the user’s knowledge to surreptitiously track and/or transmit data to an unauthorized third party.

Botnet
A network of remotely controlled systems used to coordinate attacks and distribute malware, spam, and phishing scams.

Bots
(Short for “robots”) are programs that are covertly installed on a targeted system allowing an unauthorized user to remotely control the compromised computer for a variety of malicious purposes.





Electronic attacks are sneak attacks on another nations infrastructure.



All of this adds up the overall fact that:
-Humans really can't trust each other. Sorry.
That was our conclusion drawn.

After reading all this theory, let' go get us practical below.







CLICK HERE!

(Look at the CHECKPOINT =LIVE= WORLD CYBERATTACK MAP in a new browser tab)




After opening the Cyberattacks webpage, wait 10-15 seconds for it to start-up first. It then shows different cyberattacks from all over the planet, exactly as, and when -they happen, on a world map. It's all displayed for you on one page. (And it's nice to look at for 2-3 minutes). See picture of website below.

And Checkpoint, are also the manufacturer of the cyber security software suit ZoneAlarm that we recommend.
There are those that believe that CHECKPOINT is a front business for the American CIA. The reason for this are that there are a division within the CIA that also is called Checkpoint.
What we do know, is that we can see 'them' on the same cyber-security speech events.
*update* 2016-07-30 A "professional" cyber attack has hit Russian government bodies, the country's intelligence service says.

A "cyber-spying virus" was found in the networks of about 20 organisations, the Federal Security Service (FSB) said.
The hack had been "planned and made professionally", and targeted state organisations, scientific and defence companies, as well as "country's critically important infrastructures".
The virus attack was aimed at "information resources of the state authorities, scientific and defense companies, enterprises of the defense industry and other objects of the country's critically important infrastructures."
"Thus, clearly, it was a targeted virus spread, planned and made professionally," the source said. "Specialists say, the malicious software, judging by the style of programming, names of files, parameters of their use and by methods, is similar to the software, which was used in much-spoken-about earlier revealed cyber-spying, revealed both in territory of the Russian Federation and around the globe."

"The newest sets of the said software are made individually for every "victim," on the basis of unique features of attacked machines. The virus is spread by target attacks on computers by sending an electronic message, containing a malicious attachment. As the software gets inside the system, it launches necessary modules and becomes able to intercept the network traffic, listen to it, make screenshots, turn on web cameras and PC microphones, mobile devices, to record audio and video files, reports on use of keys and so forth."

FSB jointly with ministries and authorities finalized measures to reveal all the "victims" in the Russian Federation and to minimize negative consequences incurred by the harmful software.

More:
http://tass.ru/en/politics/891681
More:
http://tass.ru/en/politics/891681
The malware allowed those responsible to switch on cameras and microphones within the computer, take screenshots and track what was being typed by monitoring keyboard strokes, the FSB stated.

The report comes as Russia stands accused over data breaches involving the Democratic Party in the US.






Cyber warfare / cyberwarfare = State or government launched attacks. Very common in almost all countries. Often called or referred to as counterespionage.

© THE POLITICAL AVENUE™ MAGAZINE 2017

Written and edited for professional educations and for online use.

We write CYBERTERRORISM and CYBERWARFARE since we see it as better spelling of the words used.


Andrejevic, Mark. iSpy: Surveillance and Power in the Interactive Era. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2007.
Brown, Lawrence V. Cyberterrorism and Computer Attacks. Hauppauge, N.Y.: Novinka Books, 2006.
Council of Europe. Cyberterrorism: The Use of the Internet for Terrorist Purposes. Brussels: Council of Europe, 2007.
Jordan, Tim, and Paul A. Taylor. Hacktivism and Cyberwars: Rebels with a Cause. New York: Routledge, 2004.
Verton, Dan. Black Ice: The Invisible Threat of Cyberterrorism. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2003.
Weimann, Gabriel. Terror on the Internet. Washington, D.C.: United States Institute of Peace Press, 2006




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